Urine contains by-products from many organs such as the pancreas, liver and kidneys. Abnormal levels of these by-products can indicate diabetes, liver or urinary tract disease.
In the lab we look at the color, specific gravity and pH of the urine. We also look for protein, glucose, ketones, blood and bilirubin. We then centrifuge the urine and look at the sediment microscopically for white blood cells, red blood cells, bacteria, crystals, casts, and different epithelial cells.